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The EV charging station is also termed electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). It is used to charge electric cars, neighbourhood electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrids. EV Charging stations were developed in the 19th century. In 1899, the Electric charging station was launched by General Electric and it was established in US cities. This charging station looked like a telephone pillar. After that number of EV charging stations is well developed. The EV charging station comes in two types like AC charging stations and DC fast chargers Power is transferred to the onboard charger via the AC charging station. DC fast chargers provide high-power charging and start coming with a variety of connectors for charging a wide range of vehicles. DC power supply for the bypassing converter in the vehicle. The majority of electric vehicles use both AC and DC power. A larger AC-to-DC converter is required for most vehicles. This converter includes an electrical vehicle. Vehicles receive AC power from the wall, which they convert to DC power internally and use to charge the battery.

The EV charging station charges the vehicles at a different speed. It consists of levels 1, level 2, and level 3 charging systems.

Level 1 (Household): System used for charging 120 volts (V), alternating-current (AC) plug, and dedicated circuit.

Level 2 (Business): Charge the vehicle through 240V, AC plug, and home charging or public charging pieces of equipment.

Level 3 (Commercial): It is a DC faster charger, that charges the vehicle using 480V and a direct current (DC) plug.

EV charging stations consist of:

  • Physical Components – It contains internal electronics, controllers, cords, EV-compatible plugs, and telecommunications devices for sharing data and allows network connections.
  • Software – The application of EV software is to manage the charge stations and their networks. The functional software elements are diverse interface, operator interface, admin interface, network databases, charge station interface adaptor, and charge station operational software. The key features of electrical vehicle software are automatic fault detection, live metre display, charger connection and monitoring, billing, payment, managing users, tracking costs, and an interactive dashboard.
  • On-Going Operation and Maintenance – It includes setting up the EV driver access control, pricing consultation, up-time monitoring, reporting, and maintenance of hardware and software.

Charging Station Network:

There are three types of charging station networks including Non-networked, Closed networks, and Open networks.

  1. Non-networked – Generally it is used in the residential area. It is not connected to any other network.
  2. Closed network – It is a proprietary communication between the charging station and the network server.
  3. Open network – It is a standard communication between charging stations and multiple open networks.

Public EV Charging Station:

This charging station is situated in a public place like a parking space. During the charging of the electrical cars at the public EV charging station, people can pay only electricity and usage fees.  Some public EV charging stations are rapid charging stations that are too expensive. There are some disadvantages of public EV charging stations, such as the need for long wait times to charge the vehicle, the difficulty of finding public EV charging stations for new people unfamiliar with the area, and the fact that public charging stations provide level 3 fast charging, which can cause battery damage.

Home EV Charging Station:

Home EV charging stations are more convenient to use and come at affordable prices. People can charge the vehicle at any time without waiting. But it’s one disadvantage it takes more time to charge a vehicle as compared to a public EV charging station.

North America is Dominated in the Development of EV charging Station:

In North America a high number of charging stations are available. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fuels Data Center stated that the total EV charging stations are over 115,000 including public EV charging stations above 46,000, 41,000 Level 2 stations with over 91,000 charging ports, 6000 DC fast charging stations available. The US is the leading country in the public EV charging station.

Charging Time of Vehicle:

The charging time of a vehicle is based on the capacity, power density, and charging power of a battery. If the capacity and power density of the battery is high, then the battery can accept more power per unit time, and this higher charging power transfers more energy to the vehicle per unit time. The charge time can be calculated by using the formula:

Charging Time = Battery Capacity/ Charging Power (kWh/kW)

Need for Electrical Vehicles Charging Station:

The EV charging stations should be placed in cities every three kilometers. For twenty-five kilometers, they should be on both sides of the roads. Long-distance and heavy-duty electric vehicles are mostly found on highways, so they should be placed on both sides of the road for 100 kilometres. Now that industrial transportation is expanding on a large scale and the electrical vehicle network is expanding, there is a huge demand for electrical charging stations.

The EV charging station provides some benefits including:

  1. EV charging station helps the environment by preventing them to be polluted by fossil fuels.
  2. Gives the best speed experience to vehicles.
  3. Charging station charge the vehicle easily.
  4. Helps to decrease global warming.

Future of EV Charging Station:

Use the V2G EV charging stations for electrical vehicles. It is a bidirectional charger it saves energy and transfers the energy into the electricity grid on basis of high demand. In 2022, Volkswagen launched V2G EV charging station. This system helps to stabilise the grid, power the home, and charge other EVs. The V2G battery network improves EV charging operations and represents a profitable opportunity to increase the productivity of EV charging stations.

Challenges in Installation of EV Charging Station:

The government of various countries has stringent rules regarding the installation of charging stations. The provider of EV charging stations needs of follows government instructions. For the installation EV charging station in the commercial area, the procedure is difficult because it requires guidelines of community or design, parking requirements, zoning requirements, and inspection fees. The cost, plot plan, electrical load calculations, and electrical plans must all be considered when installing an EV charging station. The main challenge during charging is managing the traffic crowd at charging stations.

Major Key Players Involved in The Manufacturer of EV charging Station:

  • ABB
  • ChargePoint Inc.
  • Siemens
  • Engie
  • Schneider Electric
  • Tesla
  • EVgo
  • Alfen
  • AeroVironment
  • Blink Charging
  • Tata Power
  • Charzer
  • Mass-Tech
  • BrightBlu
  • Panasonic
  • Ensto
  • Exicom

Related Article:


Increase the installation of EV charging stations owing to an increase in the demand for electric vehicles. With the increase in the prices of fossil fuels, people like to use electrical vehicles. Electrical vehicles prevent the environment from pollution and help to decrease global warming. Nowadays, raising concern about pollution among the people increase the demand for such a vehicle. EV charging stations are available in public EV charging stations and home charging stations, people can use them on basis of their comfort. Most EV charging stations present in the North America and Asia Pacific region. The government of various countries invested in production of EV charging station. Thus, it is anticipated to increase the number of EV charging station among the world in analysis year.

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